Pharoah History 101

Western Civilization to 1600
Northern Virginia
Community College

Dr. Doug Campbell,
Office Hours via Zoom: Tuesdays and Thursdays, 12:30 -2:00pm;
Office Hours In LC-320: Tuesdays and Thursdays, 3:30-4pm, Thursdays 5:30-7pm,or by appointment.
Email me at least 24 hours in advance to schedule an appointment if you need to consult during office hours.

Due to the ongoing pandemic, NOVA and the state of Virginia mandates everyone wear face coverings while indoors on campus for everyone's safety. Free masks are available at the campus Parking and NOVACard office. You are also encouraged to take advantage of one of the several safe and effective vaccines against COVID-19 which help protect both you and those around you. NOVA also offers a $250 incentive for all vaccinated students. Thanks for your help!

If the situation with the ongoing pandemic deteriorates, the in person class meetings may be moved to synchronous Zoom sessions at the professor's discretion.
Grading and Due Dates
Description of Course Elements
Course Schedule

Welcome to History 101

You just happen to be lucky enough to have enrolled in a class on the history of western civilization.  Seriously. History is enormously interesting, and I love teaching it.   If I do my job correctly, you will love learning about it.  And of course, not only is history fascinating, but it's also valuable in an intellectual sense.  Learning about how people lived in the past can help broaden your horizons, making your outlook less parochial and more cosmopolitan.  It's sort of like traveling to a foreign country without the discomfort of a long, uncomfortable plane ride. History, of course, can also inform your understanding of the present by showing you the deeper roots of problems and trends in the contemporary world.  And finally, a well-taught history course is chock full of practice in all sorts of useful skills that employers are interested in, such as critical thinking, analyzing documents, and crafting well-written arguments based on evidence.  So history can be interesting, can enrich your intellectual life, and make you more money.  What could be more awesome?

One thing to keep in mind with this course, however, is the fact that learning is not a spectator sport.  You can't just sit back passively and expect to get anything near the full benefit of this class.  You need to be actively engaged in your own education.  I certainly have to play my  part, and I promise to do my best to present an interesting and dynamic class which offers you all sorts of opportunities to learn cool stuff.  The actual learning is your job, though.  To put it another way, I can cook the most delicious banquet imaginable, and set the table in the most attractive way possible, piling it high with all sorts of fabulous delicacies.  But in the end, you're the one who actually has to eat the meal.  So if you're going to take this class, I'll ask you to make a conscious decision to engage in all of the opportunities available to you, and to commit to coming to all of the class sessions, to participating in an active and thoughtful manner in all of our class discussions, to completing all of the assigned readings, and to submitting all of the required assignments.  If you do, I promise it will be worth your while.  Your place at the table is set, and you are invited....

Stuff the College makes me include:

Course Description

Examines the development of western civilization from ancient times to the present. Part I of II. Lecture 3
hours per week.

General Course Purpose

Surveys the general history of the Western world from about 3000 BCE to 1600 CE and allows students to
reach a basic understanding of the characteristic features of the Western world's early historical development
in that span of time. Students will learn about some of the important political, economic, social, intellectual,
cultural and religious changes that shaped the development of the West from earliest times.

Course objectives

Upon completion of the course, the student will be able to:

Course Prerequisites: None


Our primary goal is to investigate what it means to be human by looking at what humans were like in the past. To that end, this class is going to use several themes as "lenses" through which to examine the human past.  The themes are:

Government: What are the origins of human governments?  What are the various forms that government has taken over the centuries? Which forms work best? Which are worst?

Religion: What is religion? What role does it play in human societies? Is religion an essential part of being human?

Gender: Are different social roles for men and women essential or arbitrary? How have human opinions on gender, marriage, and sexuality changed over time?

Social Class: Are inequalities in wealth and power inherent, appropriate parts of human life or evils to be overcome? On what basis should wealth and power be allocated?

There are of course plenty of other lenses through which to look at the past, but these are a good start and should give plenty of interesting questions to examine for one class.


There are no books you need to purchase for this class. We will be making use, as much as possible, of Open Educational Resources (OER) which are available online for free.

Even though we have left the more traditional paper textbook-oriented model of a history class behind, however, this course still requires you to do a great deal of reading, writing, and, above all, thinking.  You should take the course readings seriously, and make sure to keep up with the reading assignments described below in the Class Schedule.

Course readings should be completed BEFORE you log into class session for which they are assigned. It is especially important to read the sources marked as "discussion readings" because we will be discussing them in class. Taking notes on them, marking the most important passages, and jotting down any questions you might have is highly encouraged.

Grading and Due Dates

Your overall grade for the class will consist of the following elements.  No work for the course (other than the final exam) will be accepted after December 3-- No exceptions!

Scores will be posted on Canvas, and will be accompanied by general comments about the strengths and weaknesses of your work.  If you would like a more detailed description of aspects of the assignment which could be improved, just ask me and I will be happy to provide one.

Course Element Percentage of Course Grade Due Date
Attendance and Participation 20% Every Class Session
Discussion Group Leadership
At least 3 times during the semester
Source Criticism Paper  (2 pages) 10% Source Proposal due September 17
Finished Paper due September 24
Religion and Philosophy Paper (2 pages) 10% October 8
Midterm Exam 5%
October 17
Annotated Bibliography Part 1  10% November 12
Annotated Bibliography Part 2 
10% November 19
Research Paper (5 pages)
25% Research Paper Topic Proposal Due September 10
Finished Paper Due December 3
Final Exam 5% December 10

Grading Scale

Final Course Grade
Above 90%
80-89% B
70-79% C
60-69% D
Below 60%


Guidelines for Conduct During Online Class Meetings

You are responsible for being present and attentive during class. Late arrival to class may result in being marked as absent for the class session.

Disruptive Behavior: Please be considerate. Disruptive behavior will not be tolerated.  Private conversations during lecture or class discussions all distract and disturb your instructor and your classmates, and will count against your participation grade.  Repeated instances of rude behavior may result your removal from the classroom. If you have a question or a comment on the course material, please raise your hand.

Announcements: If there is something I need to communicate to the class, I will post an announcement to the course Canvas page. It is the your responsibility to check the course's Canvas page and your College email account in a timely manner in order to receive information on the substitute assignment and when it is due. You should adjust the settings of your Canvas account to make sure that you are promptly notified.

Abuse: Any student who seems to be under the influence of alcohol or intoxicating drugs, or who is abusive or violent will be referred to the appropriate College authorities.

Course Content Warning: Lectures and course materials may contain disturbing content, including, but not limited to: violence, sexual assault, war crimes, genocide, mental or physical illnesses or disabilities, discrimination or persecution on the basis of gender, race, ethnicity, religion, and/or sexual orientation, etc. If you have been personally impacted by one or more of these topics and suffer from PTSD, please email the professor if you would like prior notification of lectures containing discussions of the effecting topics. 

Accommodations: Students requiring special accommodations for assignments or exams should have the appropriate forms from the Disability Support Service (DSS).  Forms should be given to me no fewer than 7 days before the date the assignment or exam requiring the accommodation is due, and preferably at the very beginning of the semester.

Guidelines for Written Work

Formatting: Papers should be double spaced, using 12 point Tahoma font and one inch margins.  All papers must be word processed and submitted through Canvas as files in .doc, .odt, .pdf, or .rtf format (No .pages format submissions, please!).  E-mail submissions will not be accepted.  See this rubric for a more detailed description of how you will be graded.

Style and Grammar: All of your work for this class must present a main argument or thesis which addresses the question(s) posed by the assignment, should support that argument with evidence, and should be written in grammatical and stylistically correct English.  Make sure to proofread and use spell-check. For information on writing papers for this class, make sure to read my Tips for History Papers page.  You also might want to consult the following handy websites:

        NVCC Loudoun's Writing Center       
        Patrick Rael, "Avoid Common Mistakes In Your History Paper"
        Steven Kreis, "Writing the Short Essay"

Citations:  You MUST include a formal citation any time you refer to a specific passage in a text, even if you do not quote the text directly.  The required method for citing sources in this class is the Chigago Manual of Style's format, which is the standard for the discipline of history.  According to this format, at the end of any sentence or paragraph drawn from a specific part of a source, you insert superscript number which corresponds to a footnote at the bottom of the page with the appropriate bibliographic information.  Number your footnotes consecutively. Consult the previous web link for more detailed information on citations in this format.  You also might find this video on "Inserting Chicago Style Footnotes and Endnotes Using Microsoft Word"  helpful. EVERY PAPER you complete for this class should include a bibliography at the end listing all of the sources you consulted (even if the list includes only one source).  You bibliography page does not count toward the page length of your assignment.

Plagiarism:  Any student caught plagiarizing or cheating in this course will be subject to appropriate disciplinary action, including at a minimum no credit whatsoever for the assignment or exam in question (No exceptions!!!).   Particularly flagrant instances of cheating or multiple instances of plagiarism will result in a grade of "F" for the course. Procedures for disciplinary measures and appeals are outlined in the NOVA Student Handbook.

Please note that even copying a sentence or two from another source without citing it is enough to trigger a plagiarism penalty.  Likewise, changing a word here or there from content which you copy is still plagiarism.  Your work should be entirely in your own words except for the passages which you quote and appropriately cite.

For a bit more discussion on why you will probably get caught if you try to use the web to plagiarize, see "How Dumb Do They Think We Are?" by Jonathan Malesic.  All of your papers for the class will be checked for plagiarism by Turnitin software.

Late Work: Late papers and assignments will receive a one letter grade late penalty. The Attendance and Participation activities associated with our class meetings depend on your active interaction with your classmates, and cannot be completed late.

Guidelines for E-Mail Communication

The easiest way to contact me outside of class is through e-mail.  In order to receive a response to your message, however, your e-mail must contain the following elements, which are all part of the basic etiquette for professional correspondence:

Messages sent using "text-ese" or rude or abusive language will be ignored (b/c it makes u look ignorant d00d)!

I have on average between 150-200 students a semester, so you need to provide me with as much information as possible if you want a timely answer to your message.  Please allow at least 48 hours before following up.  If you haven't received a response within a couple of days, however, feel free to nag me.

Description of Course Elements

Attendance and Participation

Attendance Policy: Your attendance and active participation is expected at every class meeting.  Given the fact that participation is part of your grade, your attendance is expected at every class meeting.  You are allowed two unexcused absence for the semester.  You will only receive credit for attending a class session if you are present when I take roll at the beginning of class.  Please note that you should definitely not come to class if you suspect you may have an infectious illness. Let me know and I can excuse the absence-- thanks!

Preparedness: You should make sure that you have completed the assigned readings and any required assignments BEFORE you log into the class session for which they are assigned, especially the readings labelled as "Discussion Readings."  You may be asked to discuss both readings and assignments, so you should have access to them during class.

You are expected to treat your fellow students with respect and a spirit of generosity and good-will. If you have a problem with one of the other students that you are unable to resolve on your own, please contact the professor for guidance and assistance.

Group Leadership

Discussions in smaller groups will be a frequent feature of the class.  At least 3 times over the course of the semester, each student will serve as the leader of their group for class discussions. The group leader is responsible for noting which group members are present and participating in the discussion, and should help guide the group's conversation so that the form associated with that particular discussion has been completely filled out. The group leader will also share the group's findings with the rest of the class, if applicable, for that particular class session. Finally, the group leader should also turn in the appropriate completed form through Canvas at the end of the class session, and should submit a brief paragraph describing what they did to prepare and how they helped to facilitate the discussion.

Religion and Philosophy Comparative Analysis Paper

Read the Excerpts from the Book of Deuteronomy (5, 9, 12-13, 21-22)  and Plato's Euthyphro, and then write a paper at least two double-spaced pages long which answers the following question: "According to Socrates in Euthyphro, what is the nature of piety (ie, holiness, religious ethics) ?  What do you think Socrates would have to say about the vision of religious ethics in the Book of Deuteronomy?  In what ways did Greek philosophy and ancient Jewish monotheism seem to have approached religious ethics differently?"  Make sure especially to reference the famous Euthyphro Dilemma: "Is the pious loved by the gods because it is pious, or is it pious because it is loved by the gods?Ē  

You should make sure to refer to or quote specific examples from the documents in order to support your arguments, and to cite them using Chicago-format footnotes.  

Please follow the guidelines for written work in this class.  See this rubric for a more detailed description of how you will be graded.

Source Criticism Paper

You should select a website dealing with the topic you are using for your Research Paper and compare it to an article on the same basic subject written during the past 50 years from a history-focused scholarly journal (see below for more detailed information on how to find a scholarly journal article). Websites should contain orignal content, and cannot be primary source documents, encyclopedia/Wikipedia articles, or reprints of articles published elsewhere.
These two sources must be approved by the professor before you can proceed any further with this assignment.  Your proposed sources for the Source Criticism Paper should be uploaded for approval using this form. Make sure to check the professor's feedback to see if your sources were approved, or if you need to resubmit the form.

Once your sources are approved, you should read them and then, in a paper at least two double-spaced pages long, write a comparative analysis with a main arguement which answers this major question:  "Which of these two sources would be most useful to scholar researching this topic?"  Your analysis also ought to consider the following secondary questions:

You should mention the title of the website and the title of the article, the name of the journal, and the name of the author of the scholarly journal article in the introduction of your paper. You should also include the full bibliographic citations for each in a bibliography page.

Please follow the guidelines for written work in this class.  You do not need to include footnotes for this assignment unless you quote either of your two sources directly, or you consult some source other than the sources you are analyzing. See this rubric for a more detailed description of how you will be graded.

How To Find A Scholarly Journal Article:

This video walks you through the process of finding a scholarly journal article using the NOVA Library and JSTOR: How to Find a Scholarly Journal Article

A scholarly journal is a periodical which contains research-based articles and reviews by established scholars in a given field.  These sorts of journals are geared towards a professional or academic audience, and are intended to serve as an intellectual resource rather than to earn a profit for the publisher.  In order to have an article published in a scholarly journal, an author must submit it to the editorial board of the journal first.  The editors then will have the prospective article reviewed by other scholars in the field.  Only an article which passes through this process of evaluation by recognized experts ("peer review") can be published in a scholarly journal.  All scholarly journal articles meticulously document their sources of information and contain ample foot or endnotes.  While some scholarly journals make some or all of their content available on the web, a genuine scholarly journal is also always published in paper form so it can become part of the collections of research-oriented libraries.  Consult the NOVA Library's page on scholarly journal articles for more information on what distinguishes a scholarly journal from other sorts of periodicals.

Just a few examples of some of the most prominent scholarly journals dealing with ancient or medieval history include The American Historical ReviewThe Journal of Ancient History, The Journal of Roman Studies, Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, Classical Antiquity, Clio, The Medieval Review, Speculum: A Journal of Medieval Studies, Renaissance Quarterly, The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies, and Past and Present (This is not a complete list-- there are many, many more!).  Please note that magazines like History TodayNational Geographic Magazine, and American History certainly contain interesting material, they are intended for a popular audience rather than a professional academic one, and hence do not qualify as scholarly journals.

Not too terribly long ago, the only place one could go to access a scholarly journal was an academic library.  These days, however, many journals allow readers to access their contents online. The best place to start is JSTOR, a service which provides the full text of articles from several hundred different scholarly journals.  You can use JSTOR for free by accessing it through the NVCC Library's site.  

You can access JSTOR from the NOVA library's homepage.  Log into My NOVA and then go to

Click on "Research Databases by Subject";
the click "History (HIS)";
then click "JSTOR"

Once in JSTOR, you should select the "advanced search" option, scroll down to "Narrow by Item Type" and click the "Articles" box, and then scroll down again to "Narrow by discipline and/or publication title:" and click the "History" box.

Then plug in your search topic and see what comes up.

Annotated Bibliography

An annotated bibliography is an organized list of sources. It differs from a straightforward bibliography in that each reference is followed by a paragraph length annotation. The Annotated Bibliography is part of your Research Paper.  You should provide annotations for the sources that will then be used in the Research Paper.  Sources should be directly related to the Research Paperís topic.  Annotations should be a brief paragraph (about 100 words) long.

Part 1 of your Annotated Bibliography should include:
For primary sources, you might consult the following resources (some of these sites also contain secondary sources as well):

Directory of World History Primary Sources

For each of the Primary Sources in Part 1 your annotation should include:

Part 2 of your Annotated Bibliography should include:

For each of the Secondary Sources in Part 2 your annotation should include:

Please follow the guidelines for written work in this class.
Research Paper

As the capstone of your work in the course, you will complete a Research Paper which is at least 5 double-spaced pages long, and which draws together all of the skills you have acquired over the course of the semester.  

Research Question:

 Your paper should attempt to answer a specific question relevant to the subject matter of the course which deals with one or more of the themes of the course (religion, government, gender, and social class) and discuss how it/they have changed over time.  

The themes themselves are too broad to be the focus or your paper, so your topic should narrow the focus down in some way (For example, the topic, "Religion in Western Civilization" is too broad).  On the other hand, I would like you to pick a topic that allows you to examine changes over a considerable span of time. Here are some sample research questions as examples.  You are free to pick one of these, to modify one (for example to change the region on which the question focuses), or to suggest your own entirely new topic. 

Proposed paper topics should be sent to the professor early in the semester for approval.  Any topic changes later in the semester must likewise be approved by the professor.

 In terms of evidence, you should feel free to draw from sources you have already considered for your other course work.  At a minimum, however, your paper must refer to and correctly cite:

You should make sure to refer to or quote specific examples from the sources in order to support your arguments, and to cite them using Chicago-format footnotes.  Please follow the guidelines for written work in this class.  See this rubric for a more detailed description of how you will be graded.

The relevant due dates and point worth of the various elements of the Research Paper are as follows:

Research Paper Element Description Due Date
Topic Proposal You should fill out and submit this form describing the research question which you would like to examine, which theme(s) you will be examining. You may not turn in an Annotated Bibliography or a Finished Research Paper without getting your Topic Proposal approved in advance.
Sept. 10
Annotated Bibliography, Parts 1 and 2
You should submit a bibliography of the sources which you intend to use for your Research Paper. The bibliography should include at least 5 primary sources (historical documents from the past) and 5 scholarly secondary sources (including at least one scholarly journal article and one scholar monarch). Each source should be accompanied by a brief paragraph of analysis (See the Annotated Bibliography assignment description for more detailed information).
Part 1: Nov.  12

Part 2: Nov. 19
Finished Research Paper You should submit a final draft of at least 5 double-spaced pages which advances a clear main argument which answers your research question, and which supports that argument with specific, correctly cited evidence drawn from the primary and secondary sources listed in your bibliography. Dec. 4


There are two unproctored exams for this course which are to be completed at home and submitted through Canvas. You can use any notes, course readers, or other resources you wish as long as you cite them (simply listing the bibliographic information or web address at the end of the question is sufficient-- no need to include footnotes). All of your responses should be in your own words rather than quoted from other sources. If you use any additional sources without citing them, you will not receive any points for the exam.

Midterm Exam. You should submit a file through Canvas with your responses to the following questions:

1) Provide a Time Line which lists what you think are the ten most important events in the history of Western civilization from Prehistory through the 1st century CE.  Each item on your Time Line should contain the following information:

2) An analysis of what you think are the most important developments or changes in the history of Western civilization from Pre-History through the 1st century CE. for each one of the four class themes. Refer to specific primary sources we have read for the class which back up your arguments. Write a substantial paragraph for each theme:

Final Exam. You should submit a file through Canvas with your responses to the following questions:

1) Provide a Time Line which lists what you think are the ten most important events in the history of Western civilization from between 1-1600 CE Each item on your Time Line should contain the following information:

2) An analysis of what you think are the most important developments or changes in the history of Western civilization from between 1-1600 CE for each one of the four class themes. Refer to specific primary sources we have read for the class which back up your arguments.Write a substantial paragraph for each theme:

Course Schedule

Week 1 

Tuesday, August 24 :

Course Introduction

Discussion Reading: Read Through the Course Syllabus.

Watch "Is History B.S.?"
Thursday, August 26:

Why Study History?
Discussion Readings on Cognitive Biases: Confirmation Bias, The Backfire Effect (This contains salty language.  Feel free to read the classroom version if you prefer to avoid that), The Texas Sharpshooter Fallacy, The Dunning-Kruger Effect.

Watch What's The Difference Between Primary & Secondary Sources?

Kreis, "The Proper Attitude;" "Why Study History?;" "Taking Notes in Class; "
Damen, "History and What-Really-Happened."
Assignments to Complete: Read through the entire syllabus, and submit the Introduction Assignment by 11:59 pm on August 27 using the appropriate link under "Assignments" in the class Canvas page. Make sure to check the feedback you received to see if you need to resubmit it.

Week 2

Tuesday, August 31:

What the Heck Is Western Civilization?

Discussion Reading: Francois Guizot on Civilization (1800)

Watch Is Western Civilization B.S.?

Brooks, "Introduction"

Kreis, "What is Civilization?;"
Thursday, September 2:

Are You Smarter Than A Cave Man?

Discussion Reading: Look at some of the Paleolithic art from Chauvet Cave;

Damen, "The Indo-Europeans and Historical Linguistics;"

Week 3

Tuesday, September 7:

The Neolithic Revolution
Discussion Reading: Jared Diamond "The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race," Discover, (May 1, 1999).

Watch Was the Invention of Agriculture B.S.?

Brooks, "Chapter 1: The Origins of Civilization"

Damen, "The Origins and Invention of Writing," "The ABG's of History," "Women and Historical Biography;"
Thursday, September 9:

Bronze Age Mesopotamia
Discussion Reading: The Code of Hammurabi (c. 1754 BC).

Watch Evidence, Citations, and Plagiarism: Who Cares?

Brooks, "Chapter 2: Egypt"

Assignments to Complete: Topic Proposal for the Research Paper due by 11:59 pm, September 10 using this form.  Make sure to check the professor's feedback on Canvas to see if your topic has been approved, or if you need to resubmit this assignment.

Last day to withdraw with refund is September 8.
Week 4
Tuesday, September 14

Paganism and Monolatry
Discussion Readings: Penitential Prayer to Every God; "The Flood Story" from The Epic of Gilgamesh.

Watch Was Ancient Paganism B.S.?

Brooks, "Chapter 3: The Bronze Age and The Iron Age"

Thursday, September 16:

The Hebrew Bible
Discussion Readings: Excerpts from The Book of Genesis (1-3, 6-8, 22);

Campbell, "Ancient Religion," "Evolution Toward Monotheism, "Israelite Religion;"

Assignments to Complete: Source Proposal for the Source Criticism Paper  due September 17. You should enter the complete bibliographic information for the sources you will analyze for this assignment using this form. Make sure to read the directions for the Source Criticism Paper in the syllabus CAREFULLY before filling out the form.

Also, you might want to watch this video: How to Find a Scholarly Journal Article

Week 5
Tuesday, September 21:

Israelite Monotheism
Discussion Readings: Excerpts from the Book of Deuteronomy (5, 9, 12-13, 21-22).

Damen, "Akhenaten and Monotheism," "The Old Testament and Its Authors."

Brooks, "Chapter 4: The Archaic Age of Greece"
Thursday, September 23:
Greek Society

Discussion Reading: Excerpts from the poetry of Sappho of Lesbos, c. 630 BCE; Aristotle on the Good Wife  BCE

Watch Was The Iliad B.S.?

Watch How Can You Tell If A Website Is B.S. Or Not?

Damen, "Archaeology: Troy and Heinrich Schliemann;"

Brooks,  "Chapter 5: Persia and the Greek Wars"
Assignments to Complete: Source Criticism Paper due by 11:59 pm September 24 (Your sources MUST be approved by the professor before you turn this in).

Week 6

Tuesday, September 28:
Greek Philosophy

Discussion Reading: Plato, Euthyphro.  This is not the easiest source to read.  You might wish to consult this outline, which does a good job of succinctly summarizing some of what is discussed in the dialogue.

Brooks, "Chapter 6: The Classical Age of Greece"
Thursday, September 30:

Ancient Slavery
Discussion Readings: Aristotle on Slavery (c. 350 BC); Diodorus Siculusí Account of the First Servile War (c. 135Ė132 BC)

Watch Was Ancient Slavery B.S.?

Brooks, "Chapter 7: The Hellenistic Age"

Week 7

Tuesday, October 5:
The Roman Republic

Discussion Reading: Polybius, "An Analysis of the Roman Government (Excerpt from Histories)

Brooks, "Chapter 8: The Roman Republic"

Damen, "Roman Cults and Worship;"

Thursday, October 7: The Pax Romana
Discussion Reading: Introduction on Boudicca and Description by Tacitus of the Rebellion of Boudicca (60-61 CE)

Brooks, "Chapter 9: The Roman Empire"
Assignments to Complete: Religion and Philosophy Paper due October 8

Week 8

Tuesday, October 12
No Class
Thursday, October 14: The Origins of Christianity

Discussion Reading: Excerpts from the Gospel According to Luke; Excerpts from the Gospel of Thomas;

Campbell, "Early Monotheism;"

Brooks, "Chapter 10: The Late Empire and Christianity"

Kreis, "Christianity as a Cultural Revolution,"

Assignments to Complete: Midterm Exam, due October 17.

Week 9

Tuesday, October 19:
The Expansion of Christianity

Discussion Reading: Excerpts from the Letters of St. Paul

Watch: Was The Spread of Early Christianity B.S.?

Kreis, "The Church Fathers: St. Jerome and St. Augustine,"

Damen, "Early Christianity and the Church,"

Thursday, October 21:

The Fall of Rome

Discussion Reading: Procopius, The Plague, 542

Watch Was The Fall of Rome B.S.?

Brooks, "Chapter 11: Byzantium"

Damen, "The Fall of Rome: Facts and Fictions;" 

Week 10
Tuesday, October 26:

The Origins of Islam

Discussion Reading: Excerpts from the Qu'ran.

Brooks, "Chapter 12: Islam and the Caliphates"

Thursday, October 28:

The Expansion of Islam
Discussion Reading: The Pact of Umar (c. 7th century)

Kreis,  "Islamic Civilization;"

Damen, "The Nature and Triumph of Islam;"
Assignments to Complete: Last day to withdraw from the class without grade penalty is October 29.

Week 11
Tuesday, November 2:

No Class

Thursday, November 4:

The Early Middle Ages
Discussion Reading: Excerpts from Beowulf, (c. 11th c. CE)

Brooks, "Chapter 13: Early Medieval Europe"

Week 12

Tuesday, November 9:

Discussion Reading: Excerpts from The Rule of St. Benedict, c.530 CE

Brooks, "Chapter 1: The High Middle Ages"
Thursday, November 11:

Discussion Reading: The Life of St. Liutberga, 9th Century

Annotated Bibliography Part 1 Due November 12

Week 13

Tuesday, November 16:

The Crusades
Discussion Readings: Urban II Call the First Crusade at Council of Clermont, as reported by Fucher of Chartres (1095);

Brooks, "Chapter 2: The Crises of the Middle Ages"

Thursday, November 18:

The Black Death and the End of Feudalism

Discussion Reading: Boccaccio's Decameron on the Black Death in Florence, 1348

Watch Was The Black Death B.S.?

Brooks, "Chapter 3: The Renaissance"
Assignments to Complete: Annotated Bibliography Part 2 Due November 19

Week 14

Tuesday, November 23:
Discussion Reading: Dante Alighieri, Excerpt from The Inferno (1320)

Brooks, "Chapter 4: Politics in the Renaissance Era"
Thursday, November 25
No Class- Happy Thanksgiving!

Week 15
Tuesday, November 30:


Discussion Reading: Martin Luther, Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation (1520)

Brooks, "Chapter 6: Reformations"
Thursday, December 2:


Discussion Reading: Bartolemť de Las Casas, Excerpt from A Brief Account of the Devastation of the Indies (1542)

Watch Was Columbus B.S.?

Brooks, "Chapter 5: European Exploration"

Assignments to Complete: Research Paper due December 3. 
Final Exam due December 10