(Arabic for "Recitation") is an Arabic-language compilation of passages
dating to the 7th century a.D. The contents purport to be the messages
delivered over a period of about 20 years from the one God worshipped
by Christians and Jews (Allah
in Arabic) to Muhammad, a merchant and religious preacher from the
Arabian city of Mecca. According to Islamic tradition, Muhammad
himself did not write down these allegedly divine messages because he
was illiterate. Rather, they were supposedly memorized and
transmitted orally by his followers for several years before being
transcribed piecemeal in the generation or so following his death.
Islamic authorities at the time debated the appropriate version of the
text but ultimately produced an "authorized" Quran
in about 650 (although minor textual variations persisted throughout
the Middle Ages). Given this complex editorial history, scholars
are hesitent to assume that the Quran
necessarily represents the teachings of the historical Muhammad.
Certainly, however, subsequent generations of Muslims regarded the Quran
as the direct word of God himself, and its contents give us a window
into the beliefs and values of the society which recorded and
transmitted this text.
Sūra 1. Fātiḥa, or the Opening Chapter.
1 In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.
2 Praise be to God, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the worlds;
3 Most Gracious, Most Merciful;
4 Master of the Day of Judgement.
5 Thee do we worship, and Thine aid we seek.
6 Show] us the straight way,
7 The way of those on whom Thou hast bestowed Thy Grace, those whose (portion) is not wrath, and who go not astray.
Excerpts from Sūra 2. Baqara, or the Heifer
In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
1 Alif. Lam. Mim.
2 This is the Book; in it is guidance sure, without doubt, to those who fear God;
3 Who believe in the Unseen, are steadfast in prayer, and spend out of what We have provided for them;
And who believe in the Revelation sent to thee, and sent before thy
time, and (in their hearts) have the assurance of the Hereafter.
5 They are on (true) guidance, from their Lord, and it is these who will prosper.
6 As to those who reject Faith, it is the same to them whether thou warn them or do not warn them; they will not believe.
7 God hath set a seal on their hearts and on their hearing, and on their eyes is a veil; great is the penalty they (incur).
8 Of the people there are some who say: "We believe in God and the Last Day;" but they do not (really) believe.
9 Fain would they deceive God and those who believe, but they only deceive themselves, and realise (it) not!
In their hearts is a disease; and God has increased their disease: And
grievous is the penalty they (incur), because they are false (to
11 When it is said to them: "Make not mischief on the earth," they say: "Why, we only Want to make peace!"
12 Of a surety, they are the ones who make mischief, but they realize (it) not.
When it is said to them: "Believe as the others believe:" They say:
"Shall we believe as the fools believe?"—Nay, of a surety they are the
fools, but they do not know.
When they meet those who believe, they say: "We believe;" but when they
are alone with their evil ones, they say: "We are really with you: We
(were) only jesting."
God will throw back their mockery on them, and give them rope in their
trespasses; so they will wander like blind ones (To and fro).
16 These are they who have bartered Guidance for error: But their traffic is profitless, and they have lost true direction,
Their similitude is that of a man who kindled a fire; when it lighted
all around him, God took away their light and left them in utter
darkness. So they could not see.
18 Deaf, dumb, and blind, they will not return (to the path).
Or (another similitude) is that of a rain-laden cloud from the sky: In
it are zones of darkness, and thunder and lightning: They press their
fingers in their ears to keep out the stunning thunder-clap, the while
they are in terror of death. But God is ever round the rejecters of
The lightning all but snatches away their sight; every time the light
(helps) them, they walk therein, and when the darkness grows on them,
they stand still. And if God willed, He could take away their faculty
of hearing and seeing; for God hath power over all things.
O ye people! Adore your Guardian-Lord, who created you and those who
came before you, that ye may have the chance to learn righteousness;
Who has made the earth your couch, and the heavens your canopy; and
sent down rain from the heavens; and brought forth therewith Fruits for
your sustenance; then set not up rivals unto God when ye know (the
And if ye are in doubt as to what We have revealed from time to time to
Our servant, then produce a Sūra like thereunto; and call your
witnesses or helpers (If there are any) besides God, if your (doubts)
But if ye cannot—and of a surety ye cannot—then fear the Fire whose
fuel is men and stones,—which is prepared for those who reject Faith.
But give glad tidings to those who believe and work righteousness, that
their portion is Gardens, beneath which rivers flow. Every time they
are fed with fruits therefrom, they say: "Why, this is what we were fed
with before," for they are given things in similitude; and they have
therein companions pure (and holy); and they abide therein (for ever).
God disdains not to use the similitude of things, lowest as well as
highest. Those who believe know that it is truth from their Lord; but
those who reject Faith say: "What means God by this similitude?" By it
He causes many to stray, and many He leads into the right path; but He
causes not to stray, except those who forsake (the path),—
Those who break God's Covenant after it is ratified, and who sunder
what God Has ordered to be joined, and do mischief on earth: These
cause loss (only) to themselves.
How can ye reject the faith in God?—seeing that ye were without life,
and He gave you life; then will He cause you to die, and will again
bring you to life; and again to Him will ye return.
It is He Who hath created for you all things that are on earth;
Moreover His design comprehended the heavens, for He gave order and
perfection to the seven firmaments; and of all things He hath perfect
Behold, thy Lord said to the angels: "I will create a vicegerent on
earth." They said: "Wilt Thou place therein one who will make mischief
therein and shed blood?—whilst we do celebrate Thy praises and glorify
Thy holy (name)?" He said: "I know what ye know not."
And He taught Adam the nature of all things; then He placed them before
the angels, and said: "Tell me the names of these if ye are right."
They said: "Glory to Thee, of knowledge We have none, save what Thou
hast taught us: In truth it is Thou who art perfect in knowledge and
He said: "O Adam! Tell them their natures." When he had told them, God
said: "Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of heaven and earth,
and I know what ye reveal and what ye conceal?"
And behold, We said to the angels: "Bow down to Adam" and they bowed
down. Not so Iblis: he refused and was haughty: He was of those who
We said: "O Adam! dwell thou and thy wife in the Garden; and eat of the
bountiful things therein as (where and when) ye will; but approach not
this tree, or ye run into harm and transgression."
Then did Satan make them slip from the (Garden), and get them out of
the state (of felicity) in which they had been. We said: "Get ye down,
all (ye people), with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be your
dwelling-place and your means of livelihood—for a time."
37 Then learnt Adam from his Lord words of inspiration, and his Lord Turned towards him; for He is Oft-Returning, Most Merciful.
We said: "Get ye down all from here; and if, as is sure, there comes to
you Guidance from Me, whosoever follows My guidance, on them shall be
no fear, nor shall they grieve.
39 "But those who reject Faith and belie Our Signs, they shall be companions of the Fire; they shall abide therein."
O Children of Israel! call to mind the (special) favour which I
bestowed upon you, and fulfil your Covenant with Me as I fulfil My
Covenant with you, and fear none but Me.
And believe in what I reveal, confirming the revelation which is with
you, and be not the first to reject Faith therein, nor sell My Signs
for a small price; and fear Me, and Me alone.
42 And cover not Truth with falsehood, nor conceal the Truth when ye know (what it is).
43 And be steadfast in prayer; practise regular charity; and bow down your heads with those who bow down (in worship).
Do ye enjoin right conduct on the people, and forget (to practise it)
yourselves, and yet ye study the Scripture? Will ye not understand?
45 Nay, seek (God's) help with patient perseverance and prayer: It is indeed hard, except to those who bring a lowly spirit,—
46 Who bear in mind the certainty that they are to meet their Lord, and that they are to return to Him.
Children of Israel! call to mind the (special) favour which I bestowed
upon you, and that I preferred you to all others (for My Message).
Then guard yourselves against a day when one soul shall not avail
another nor shall intercession be accepted for her, nor shall
compensation be taken from her, nor shall anyone be helped (from
And remember, We delivered you from the people of Pharaoh: They set you
hard tasks and punishments, slaughtered your sons and let your
women-folk live; therein was a tremendous trial from your Lord.
50 And remember We divided the sea for you and saved you and drowned Pharaoh's people within your very sight.
And remember We appointed forty nights for Moses, and in his absence ye
took the calf (for worship), and ye did grievous wrong.
52 Even then We did forgive you; there was a chance for you to be grateful.
And remember We gave Moses the Scripture and the Criterion (between
right and wrong): There was a chance for you to be guided aright.
And remember Moses said to his people: "O my people! Ye have indeed
wronged yourselves by your worship of the calf: So turn (in repentance)
to your Maker, and slay yourselves (the wrong-doers); that will be
better for you in the sight of your Maker." Then He turned towards you
(in forgiveness): For He is Oft-Returning, Most Merciful.
And remember ye said: "O Moses! We shall never believe in thee until we
see God manifestly," but ye were dazed with thunder and lighting even
as ye looked on.
56 Then We raised you up after your death: Ye had the chance to be grateful.
And We gave you the shade of clouds and sent down to you Manna and
quails, saying: "Eat of the good things We have provided for you:" (But
they rebelled); to us they did no harm, but they harmed their own souls.
And remember We said: "Enter this town, and eat of the plenty therein
as ye wish; but enter the gate with humility, in posture and in words,
and We shall forgive you your faults and increase (the portion of)
those who do good."
But the transgressors changed the word from that which had been given
them; so We sent on the transgressors a plague from heaven, for that
they infringed (Our command) repeatedly.
And remember Moses prayed for water for his people; We said: "Strike
the rock with thy staff." Then gushed forth therefrom twelve springs.
Each group knew its own place for water. So eat and drink of the
sustenance provided by God, and do no evil nor mischief on the (face of
And remember ye said: "O Moses! we cannot endure one kind of food
(always); so beseech thy Lord for us to produce for us of what the
earth groweth,—its pot-herbs, and cucumbers, Its garlic, lentils, and
onions." He said: "Will ye exchange the better for the worse? Go ye
down to any town, and ye shall find what ye want!" They were covered
with humiliation and misery; they drew on themselves the wrath of God.
This because they went on rejecting the Signs of God and slaying His
Messengers without just cause. This because they rebelled and went on
Those who believe (in the Qur'ān), and those who follow the Jewish
(scriptures), and the Christians and the Sabians,—any who believe in
God and the Last Day, and work righteousness, shall have their reward
with their Lord; on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.
And remember We took your covenant and We raised above you (The
towering height) of Mount (Sinai) : (Saying): "Hold firmly to what We
have given you and bring (ever) to remembrance what is therein:
Perchance ye may fear God."
64 But ye turned back thereafter: Had it not been for the Grace and Mercy of God to you, ye had surely been among the lost.
And well ye knew those amongst you who transgressed in the matter of
the Sabbath: We said to them: "Be ye apes, despised and rejected."
66 So We made it an example to their own time and to their posterity, and a lesson to those who fear God.
And remember Moses said to his people: "God commands that ye sacrifice
a heifer." They said: "Makest thou a laughing-stock of us?" He said:
"God save me from being an ignorant (fool)!"
They said: "Beseech on our behalf Thy Lord to make plain to us what
(heifer) it is!" He said; "He says: the heifer should be neither too
old nor too young, but of middling age. Now do what ye are commanded!"
They said: "Beseech on our behalf Thy Lord to make plain to us Her
colour." He said: "He says: A fawn-coloured heifer, pure and rich in
tone, the admiration of beholders!"
They said: "Beseech on our behalf Thy Lord to make plain to us what she
is: To us are all heifers alike: We wish indeed for guidance, if God
He said: "He says: A heifer not trained to till the soil or water the
fields; sound and without blemish." They said: "Now hast thou brought
the truth." Then they offered her in sacrifice, but not with good-will.
We gave Moses the Book and followed him up with a succession of
Apostles; We gave Jesus the son of Mary Clear (Signs) and strengthened
him with the holy spirit. Is it that whenever there comes to you an
Apostle with what ye yourselves desire not, ye are puffed up with
pride?—Some ye called impostors, and others ye slay!
They say, "Our hearts are the wrappings (which preserve God's Word: we
need no more)." Nay, God's curse is on them for their blasphemy: Little
is it they believe.
And when there comes to them a Book from God, confirming what is with
them,—although from of old they had prayed for victory against those
without Faith,—when there comes to them that which they (should) have
recognized, they refuse to believe in it but the curse of God is on
those without Faith.
Miserable is the price for which they have sold their souls, in that
they deny (the revelation) which God has sent down, in insolent envy
that God of His Grace should send it to any of His servants He pleases:
Thus have they drawn on themselves Wrath upon Wrath. And humiliating is
the punishment of those who reject Faith.
When it is said to them, "Believe in what God Hath sent down, "they
say, "We believe in what was sent down to us:" yet they reject all
besides, even if it be Truth confirming what is with them. Say: "Why
then have ye slain the prophets of God in times gone by, if ye did
92 There came to you Moses with clear (Signs); yet ye worshipped the calf (Even) after that, and ye did behave wrongfully.
And remember We took your covenant and We raised above you (the
towering height) of Mount (Sinai): (Saying): "Hold firmly to what We
have given you, and hearken (to the Law)": They said:" We hear, and we
disobey:" And they had to drink into their hearts (of the taint) of the
Calf because of their Faithlessness. Say: "Vile indeed are the behests
of your Faith if ye have any faith!"
94 Say: "If the last Home, with God, be for you specially, and not for anyone else, then seek ye for death, if ye are sincere."
But they will never seek for death, on account of the (sins) which
their hands have sent on before them. and God is well-acquainted with
Thou wilt indeed find them, of all people, most greedy of life,—even
more than the idolaters: Each one of them wishes He could be given a
life of a thousand years: But the grant of such life will not save him
from (due) punishment. For God sees well all that they do.
O ye of Faith! Say not (to the Apostle) words of ambiguous import, but
words of respect; and hearken (to him): To those without Faith is a
It is never the wish of those without Faith among the People of the
Book, nor of the Pagans, that anything good should come down to you
from your Lord. But God will choose for His special Mercy whom He
will—for God is Lord of grace abounding.
None of Our revelations do We abrogate or cause to be forgotten, but We
substitute something better or similar: Knowest thou not that God Hath
power over all things?
Knowest thou not that to God belongeth the dominion of the heavens and
the earth? And besides Him ye have neither patron nor helper.
Would ye question your Apostle as Moses was questioned of old? but
whoever changeth from Faith to Unbelief, Hath strayed without doubt
from the even way.
Quite a number of the People of the Book wish they could Turn you
(people) back to infidelity after ye have believed, from selfish envy,
after the Truth hath become Manifest unto them: But forgive and
overlook, Till God accomplish His purpose; for God Hath power over all
And be steadfast in prayer and regular in charity: And whatever good ye
send forth for your souls before you, ye shall find it with God: for
God sees well all that ye do.
And they say: "None shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a
Christian." Those are their (vain) desires. Say: "Produce your proof if
ye are truthful."
Nay,—whoever submits his whole self to God and is a doer of
good,—He will get his reward with his Lord; on such shall be no fear,
nor shall they grieve.
The Jews say: "The Christians have naught (to stand) upon; and the
Christians say: "The Jews have naught (To stand) upon." Yet they
(Profess to) study the (same) Book. Like unto their word is what those
say who know not; but God will judge between them in their quarrel on
the Day of Judgment.
And who is more unjust than he who forbids that in places for the
worship of God, God's name should be celebrated?—whose zeal is (in
fact) to ruin them? It was not fitting that such should themselves
enter them except in fear. For them there is nothing but disgrace in
this world, and in the world to come, an exceeding torment.
To God belong the East and the West: Whithersoever ye turn, there is
the Presence of God. For God is all-Pervading, all-Knowing.
They say: "God hath begotten a son": Glory be to Him.—Nay, to Him
belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth: everything renders
worship to Him.
117 To Him is due the primal origin of the heavens and the earth: When He decreeth a matter, He saith to it: "Be," and it is.
Say those without knowledge: "Why speaketh not God unto us? or why
cometh not unto us a Sign?" So said the people before them words of
similar import. Their hearts are alike. We have indeed made clear the
Signs unto any people who hold firmly to Faith (in their hearts).
Verily We have sent thee in truth as a bearer of glad tidings and a
warner: But of thee no question shall be asked of the Companions of the
Never will the Jews or the Christians be satisfied with thee unless
thou follow their form of religion. Say: "The Guidance of God,—that is
the (only) Guidance." Wert thou to follow their desires after the
knowledge which hath reached thee, then wouldst thou find neither
Protector nor helper against God.
Those to whom We have sent the Book study it as it should be studied:
They are the ones that believe therein: Those who reject faith
therein,—the loss is their own.
O Children of Israel! call to mind the special favour which I bestowed
upon you, and that I preferred you to all others (for My Message).
Then guard yourselves against a Day when one soul shall not avail
another, nor shall compensation be accepted from her nor shall
intercession profit her nor shall anyone be helped (from outside).
And remember that Abraham was tried by his Lord with certain Commands,
which he fulfilled: He said: "I will make thee an Imām to the Nations."
He pleaded: "And also (Imāms) from my offspring!" He answered: "But My
Promise is not within the reach of evil-doers."
Remember We made the House a place of assembly for men and a place of
safety; and take ye the Station of Abraham as a place of prayer; and We
covenanted with Abraham and Ismā‘īl, that they should sanctify My House
for those who compass it round, or use it as a retreat, or bow, or
prostrate themselves (therein in prayer).
And remember Abraham said: "My Lord, make this a City of Peace, and
feed its people with fruits,—such of them as believe in God and the
Last Day." He said: "(Yea), and such as reject Faith,—for a while will
I grant them their pleasure, but will soon drive them to the torment of
Fire,—an evil destination (indeed)!"
And remember Abraham and Ismā‘īl raised the foundations of the House
(With this prayer): "Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us: For Thou
art the All-Hearing, the All-knowing.
"Our Lord! make of us Muslims, bowing to Thy (Will), and of our progeny
a people Muslim, bowing to Thy (will); and show us our places for the
celebration of (due) rites; and turn unto us (in Mercy); for Thou art
the Oft-Returning, Most Merciful.
"Our Lord! send amongst them An Apostle of their own, who shall
rehearse Thy Signs to them and instruct them in Scripture and Wisdom,
and sanctify them: For Thou art the Exalted in Might, the Wise."
And who turns away from the religion of Abraham but such as debase
their souls with folly? Him We chose and rendered pure in this world:
And he will be in the Hereafter in the ranks of the Righteous.
131 Behold! his Lord said to him: "Bow (thy will to Me):" He said: "I bow (my will) to the Lord and Cherisher of the Universe."
And this was the legacy that Abraham left to his sons, and so did
Jacob; "Oh my sons! God hath chosen the Faith for you; then die not
except in the Faith of Islam."
Were ye witnesses when Death appeared before Jacob? Behold, he said to
his sons: "What will ye worship after me?" They said: "We shall worship
Thy God and the God of thy fathers,—of Abraham, Ismā‘īl and Isaac,—the
One (True) God: To Him we bow (in Islam)."
That was a People that hath passed away. They shall reap the fruit of
what they did, and ye of what ye do! Of their merits there is no
question in your case!
They say: "Become Jews or Christians if ye would be guided (To
salvation)." Say thou: "Nay! (I would rather) the Religion of Abraham
the True, and he joined not gods with God."
Say ye: "We believe in God, and the revelation given to us, and to
Abraham, Ismā‘īl, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, and that given to Moses
and Jesus, and that given to (all) Prophets from their Lord: We make no
difference between one and another of them: And we bow to God (in
So if they believe as ye believe, they are indeed on the right path;
but if they turn back, it is they who are in schism; but God will
suffice thee as against them, and He is the All-Hearing, the
138 (Our religion is) the Baptism of God: And who can baptize better than God? And it is He Whom we worship.
Say: Will ye dispute with us about God, seeing that He is our Lord and
your Lord; that we are responsible for our doings and ye for yours; and
that We are sincere (in our faith) in Him?
Or do ye say that Abraham, Ismā‘īl Isaac, Jacob and the Tribes were
Jews or Christians? Say: Do ye know better than God? Ah! who is more
unjust than those who conceal the testimony they have from God? but God
is not unmindful of what ye do!
That was a people that hath passed away. They shall reap the fruit of
what they did, and ye of what ye do! Of their merits there is no
question in your case.
O ye who believe! Spend out of (the bounties) We have provided for you,
before the Day comes when no bargaining (will avail), nor friendship
nor intercession. Those who reject Faith—they are the wrong-doers.
God! There is no god but He,—the Living, the Self-subsisting, Eternal.
No slumber can seize Him nor sleep. His are all things in the heavens
and on earth. Who is there can intercede in His presence except as He
permitteth? He knoweth what (appeareth to His creatures as) Before or
After or Behind them. Nor shall they compass aught of His knowledge
except as He willeth. His Throne doth extend over the heavens and the
earth, and He feeleth no fatigue in guarding and preserving them for He
is the Most High, the Supreme (in glory).
Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from
Error: whoever rejects evil and believes in God hath grasped the most
trustworthy hand-hold, that never breaks. And God heareth and knoweth
God is the Protector of those who have faith: from the depths of
darkness He will lead them forth into light. Of those who reject faith
the patrons are the Evil Ones: from light they will lead them forth
into the depths of darkness. They will be Companions of the fire, to
dwell therein (for ever).
Those who (in charity) spend of their goods by night and by day, in
secret and in public, have their reward with their Lord: on them shall
be no fear, nor shall they grieve.
Those who devour usury will not stand except as stands one whom the
Evil One by his touch Hath driven to madness. That is because they say:
"Trade is like usury," but God hath permitted trade and forbidden
usury. Those who after receiving direction from their Lord, desist,
shall be pardoned for the past; their case is for God (to judge); but
those who repeat (the offence) are Companions of the Fire: they will
abide therein (for ever).
God will deprive usury of all blessing, but will give increase for
deeds of charity: For He loveth not creatures ungrateful and wicked.
Those who believe, and do deeds of righteousness, and establish regular
prayers and regular charity, will have their reward with their Lord: on
them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.
278 O ye who believe! Fear God, and give up what remains of your demand for usury, if ye are indeed believers.
If ye do it not, take notice of war from God and His Apostle: But if ye
turn back, ye shall have your capital sums: Deal not unjustly, and ye
shall not be dealt with unjustly.
If the debtor is in a difficulty, grant him time Till it is easy for
him to repay. But if ye remit it by way of charity, that is best for
you if ye only knew.
And fear the Day when ye shall be brought back to God. Then shall every
soul be paid what it earned, and none shall be dealt with unjustly.
Excerpts from Sūra 4. An-Nisa (Women)
In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
O mankind! reverence your Guardian-Lord, who created you from a single
person, created, of like nature, His mate, and from them twain
scattered (like seeds) countless men and women;- reverence Allah,
through whom ye demand your mutual (rights), and (reverence) the wombs
(That bore you): for Allah ever watches over you.
To orphans restore their property (When they reach their age), nor
substitute (your) worthless things for (their) good ones; and devour
not their substance (by mixing it up) with your own. For this is indeed
a great sin.
If ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly with the orphans,
Marry women of your choice, Two or three or four; but if ye fear that
ye shall not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one, or (a
captive) that your right hands possess, that will be more suitable, to
prevent you from doing injustice.
And give the women (on marriage) their dower as a free gift; but if
they, of their own good pleasure, remit any part of it to you, Take it
and enjoy it with right good cheer.
To those weak of understanding Make not over your property, which Allah
hath made a means of support for you, but feed and clothe them
therewith, and speak to them words of kindness and justice.
Make trial of orphans until they reach the age of marriage; if then ye
find sound judgment in them, release their property to them; but
consume it not wastefully, nor in haste against their growing up. If
the guardian is well-off, Let him claim no remuneration, but if he is
poor, let him have for himself what is just and reasonable. When ye
release their property to them, take witnesses in their presence: But
all-sufficient is Allah in taking account.
From what is left by parents and those nearest related there is a share
for men and a share for women, whether the property be small or
large,-a determinate share.
But if at the time of division other relatives, or orphans or poor, are
present, feed them out of the (property), and speak to them words of
kindness and justice.
Let those (disposing of an estate) have the same fear in their minds as
they would have for their own if they had left a helpless family
behind: Let them fear Allah, and speak words of appropriate (comfort).
Those who unjustly eat up the property of orphans, eat up a Fire into
their own bodies: They will soon be enduring a Blazing Fire!
Allah (thus) directs you as regards your Children's (Inheritance): to
the male, a portion equal to that of two females: if only daughters,
two or more, their share is two-thirds of the inheritance; if only one,
her share is a half. For parents, a sixth share of the inheritance to
each, if the deceased left children; if no children, and the parents
are the (only) heirs, the mother has a third; if the deceased Left
brothers (or sisters) the mother has a sixth. (The distribution in all
cases ('s) after the payment of legacies and debts. Ye know not whether
your parents or your children are nearest to you in benefit. These are
settled portions ordained by Allah. and Allah is All-knowing, All-wise.
In what your wives leave, your share is a half, if they leave no child;
but if they leave a child, ye get a fourth; after payment of legacies
and debts. In what ye leave, their share is a fourth, if ye leave no
child; but if ye leave a child, they get an eighth; after payment of
legacies and debts. If the man or woman whose inheritance is in
question, has left neither ascendants nor descendants, but has left a
brother or a sister, each one of the two gets a sixth; but if more than
two, they share in a third; after payment of legacies and debts; so
that no loss is caused (to any one). Thus is it ordained by Allah. and
Allah is All-knowing, Most Forbearing.
Those are limits set by Allah. those who obey Allah and His Messenger
will be admitted to Gardens with rivers flowing beneath, to abide
therein (for ever) and that will be the supreme achievement.
But those who disobey Allah and His Messenger and transgress His limits
will be admitted to a Fire, to abide therein: And they shall have a
Excerpts from Sūra 9. At-Taubah (Repentance)
A (declaration) of immunity from Allah and His Messenger, to those of
the Pagans with whom ye have contracted mutual alliances:-
Go ye, then, for four months, backwards and forwards, (as ye will),
throughout the land, but know ye that ye cannot frustrate Allah (by
your falsehood) but that Allah will cover with shame those who reject
And an announcement from Allah and His Messenger, to the people
(assembled) on the day of the Great Pilgrimage, that Allah and His
Messenger dissolve (treaty) obligations with the Pagans. If then, ye
repent, it were best for you; but if ye turn away, know ye that ye
cannot frustrate Allah. And proclaim a grievous penalty to those who
(But the treaties are) not dissolved with those Pagans with whom ye
have entered into alliance and who have not subsequently failed you in
aught, nor aided any one against you. So fulfil your engagements with
them to the end of their term: for Allah loveth the righteous.
But when the forbidden months are past, then fight and slay the Pagans
wherever ye find them, an seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait
for them in every stratagem (of war); but if they repent, and establish
regular prayers and practise regular charity, then open the way for
them: for Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.
If one amongst the Pagans ask thee for asylum, grant it to him, so that
he may hear the word of Allah, and then escort him to where he can be
secure. That is because they are men without knowledge.
How can there be a league, before Allah and His Messenger, with the
Pagans, except those with whom ye made a treaty near the sacred Mosque?
As long as these stand true to you, stand ye true to them: for Allah
doth love the righteous.
How (can there be such a league), seeing that if they get an advantage
over you, they respect not in you the ties either of kinship or of
covenant? With (fair words from) their mouths they entice you, but
their hearts are averse from you; and most of them are rebellious and
The Signs of Allah have they sold for a miserable price, and (many)
have they hindered from His way: evil indeed are the deeds they have
10 In a Believer they respect not the ties either of kinship or of covenant! It is they who have transgressed all bounds.
But (even so), if they repent, establish regular prayers, and practice
regular charity, they are your brethren in Faith: (thus) do We explain
the Signs in detail, for those who understand.
But if they violate their oaths after their covenant, and taunt you for
your Faith, fight ye the chiefs of Unfaith: for their oaths are nothing
to them: that thus they may be restrained.
Will ye not fight people who violated their oaths, plotted to expel the
Messenger, and took the aggressive by being the first (to assault) you?
Do ye fear them? Nay, it is Allah Whom ye should more justly fear, if
Fight them, and Allah will punish them by your hands, cover them with
shame, help you (to victory) over them, heal the breasts of Believers,
And still the indignation of their hearts. For Allah will turn (in
mercy) to whom He will; and Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
Or think ye that ye shall be abandoned, as though Allah did not know
those among you who strive with might and main, and take none for
friends and protectors except Allah, His Messenger, and the (community
of) Believers? But Allah is well-acquainted with (all) that ye do.
It is not for such as to join gods with Allah, to visit or maintain the
mosques of Allah while they witness against their own souls to
infidelity. The works of such bear no fruit: In Fire shall they dwell.