Arc de Triomphe History 102

Western Civilizations Post-1600
Northern Virginia
Community College
Vienna Secession

Dr. Doug Campbell,,Office: LC- 320
Office Hours in LC-320: Mondays and Wednesdays, 8-9:30 am, 12:30-1:30 pm, Tuesdays and Thursdays 3-4 pm
Office Hours via Zoom Appointment: Tuesdays and Thursdays, 10 am-2 pm,

Email me at least 24 hours in advance to schedule an appointment if you need to consult during office hours.

Due to the ongoing pandemic, you are encouraged to wear a face mask if you feel unwell or it makes you feel more comfortable. You are also encouraged to take advantage of one of the several safe and effective vaccines against COVID-19 which help protect both you and those around you. Thanks for your help!
Grading and Due Dates
Description of Course Elements
Course Schedule
NOVA Policies & Resources

Welcome to History 102

You just happen to be lucky enough to have enrolled in a class on the history of western civilization.  Seriously. History is enormously interesting, and I love teaching it.   If I do my job correctly, you will love learning about it.  And of course, not only is history fascinating, but it's also valuable in an intellectual sense.  Learning about how people lived in the past can help broaden your horizons, making your outlook less parochial and more cosmopolitan.  It's sort of like traveling to a foreign country without the discomfort of a long, uncomfortable plane ride. History, of course, can also in
 your understanding of the present by showing you the deeper roots of problems and trends in the contemporary world.  And finally, a well-taught history course is chock full of practice in all sorts of useful skills that employers are interested in, such as critical thinking, analyzing documents, and crafting well-written arguments based on evidence.  So history can be fun, can enrich your intellectual life, and make you more money.  What could be more awesome?

One thing to keep in mind with this course, however, is the fact that learning is not a spectator sport.  You can't just sit back passively and expect to get anything near the full benefit of this class.  You need to be actively engaged in your own education.  I certainly have to play my  part, and I promise to do my best to present an interesting and dynamic class which offers you all sorts of opportunities to learn cool stuff.  The actual learning is your job, though.  To put it another way, I can cook the most delicious banquet imaginable, and set the table in the most attractive way possible, piling it high with all sorts of fabulous delicacies.  But in the end, you're the one who actually has to eat the meal.  So if you're going to take this class, I'll ask you to make a conscious decision to engage in all of the opportunities available to you, and to commit to coming to all of the class sessions, to participating in an active and thoughtful manner in all of our class discussions, to completing all of the assigned readings, and to submitting all of the required assignments.  If you do, I promise it will be worth your while.  Your place at the table is set, and you are invited....

Stuff the College makes me include:

    Course Description: Examines the development of western civilization from ancient times to the present. Part II of II.  Lecture 3 hours per week.

    General Course Purpose: Surveys the general history of the Western world from about 1600 CE to the present and allows students to reach a basic understanding of the characteristic features of the Western world's historical development in that span of time. Students will learn about some of the important political, economic, social, intellectual, cultural and religious changes that shaped the development of West in this period of time.

    Course Prerequisite/Corequisite: None

    Course Objectives: Upon completion the course, the student will be able to:


        • Explain using written and oral communication the changing structures and development of Western civilization after 1600 CE.
        • Describe key people, periods, and events of Western civilization after 1600 CE using written and oral communication.           

    Critical Thinking

        • Identify and evaluate the social, economic and political forces at work in the evolution of Western civilization from approximately 1600 CE to the present
        • Analyze how the people, events, and periods of history have determined present practices, policies, and beliefs.
        • Understand the general chronology and geography of Western history. • Evaluate the main forces or factors at work in the historical development of the West.
        • Analyze and evaluate complex historical sources and materials and reach conclusions based on interpretations of primary and secondary resources. 

    The Age of Absolutism: Suggested Context Absolute Monarchy, Constitutional Monarchy, Hapsburg Dynasty, Philip II of Spain, Bourbon Dynasty of France, Catherine the Great of Russia,

        • Identify and/or explain the origins of Absolutism and Constitutionalism.
        • Compare and contrast the Absolute monarchy and Constitutional monarchy.
        • Analyze and evaluate complex historical sources and materials and reach conclusions based on interpretations of primary and secondary resources.

    Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment: Suggested Context Kepler, Copernicus, Newton, Empiricism, Enlightenment Philosophy (Hume, Locke, Smith, Rousseau, etc.), Social Contract

        • Describe how the Scientific Revolution impacted religious, political, and cultural institutions by challenging how people viewed the world.
        • Explain the Enlightenment thinkers applied reason to discover natural laws.
        • Analyze how Enlightenment ideas challenged practices related to traditional authority.
        • Analyze and evaluate complex historical sources and materials and reach conclusions based on interpretations of primary and secondary resources.

    Age of Revolution: Suggested Context Nationalism, American Revolution, French Revolution, Latin American Independence Movements, Napoleon, Metternich, Unification of Italy, Unification of Germany

        • Identify how Enlightenment philosophy inspired the Age of Revolution.
        • Explain how the revolutionary leaders of this time embodied or complicated the philosophies of the Enlightenment.
        • Describe the historical origins of the nation or nation-state, and the emergence of nationalism in the world.
        • Analyze and evaluate complex historical sources and materials and reach conclusions based on interpretations of primary and secondary resources.

    Industrial Revolution: Suggested Context Child Labor, Industrial Technology, Monopoly, Strikes and Unions, Factory System, Urbanization, Marxism and Communism, The ‘Working Class’

        • Identify the origins of the Industrial Revolution.
        • Describe how the Industrial Revolution changed society.
        • Analyze and evaluate complex historical sources and materials and reach conclusions based on interpretations of primary and secondary resources.

    Imperialism: Suggested Context Debate over White Man’s Burden, Anti-Colonial Thought, European Colonies (i.e, the Congo, India, Vietnam, etc.), Race and Culture, Rebellions and Uprisings

        • Analyze and explain the political, economic and social roots of imperialism.
        • Evaluate the stated purposes/intended impacts of imperialism and how the colonized resisted them.
        • Analyze and evaluate complex historical sources and materials and reach conclusions based on interpretations of primary and secondary resources.
        • Analyze the importance of racial hierarchies to European imperialism.

    World War I: Suggested Context Schlieffen Plan, Trench Warfare, Russian Revolution, Treaty of Versailles, Propaganda, Home Front, Military technology (i.e, planes, tanks, automatic weaponry, chemical warfare, etc.)

        • Identify the causes of World War I.
        • Analyze the progression of the war and its ultimate outcomes.
        • Analyze and evaluate complex historical sources and materials and reach conclusions based on interpretations of primary and secondary resources.

    Era Between Wars: Suggested Context Great Depression, Russian Revolution, Lost Generation, Totalitarian Regimes, Weimar Republic, Popular Nationalisms

        • Analyze the rise and impact of totalitarianism in Europe and/or the rest of the world.
        • Compare the economic and military power shifts caused by World War I and/or the Great Depression.
        • Analyze and evaluate complex historical sources and materials and reach conclusions based on interpretations of primary and secondary resources.
        • Explain societal transformations in the aftermath of the First World War and their impact on interwar social and political movements.

    World War II: Suggested Context Appeasement, Holocaust, Blitzkrieg, D-Day, Internment Camps, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Hitler, Churchill, Home Front, Propaganda

        • Explain the key causes of World War II  • Analyze the progression of the war and its ultimate outcomes.
        • Evaluate the impact of genocide and the Holocaust within the context of the war.
        • Analyze and evaluate complex historical sources and materials and reach conclusions based on interpretations of primary and secondary resources.

    Decolonization: Suggested Context Indigenous People, Self-Determination, Multinational States, Globalization, Algerian War, Partition of India

        • Analyze the reasons for decolonization and how nationalism and nationalistic leaders led the demand for colonial independence.
        • Evaluate the impact of independence for former colonies.
        • Analyze and evaluate complex historical sources and materials and reach conclusions based on interpretations of primary and secondary resources.

    Cold War: Suggested Context Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, NATO and the Warsaw Pact, Cuban Missile Crisis, Korean War, Vietnam War, Brinksmanship vs. Détente, Civil Rights Movement, Iron Curtain and the Berlin Wall

        • Explain the ideological, economic, and military origins of the Cold War.
        • Analyze the impacts of the Cold War on world politics, society, and/or the economy.
        • Analyze and evaluate complex historical sources and materials and reach conclusions based on interpretations of primary and secondary resources. 

    Major Topics to be Included

        • The Age of Absolutism
        • Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
        • Age of Revolution
        • Industrial Revolution
        • Imperialism
        • World War I
        • World War II
        • Decolonization
        • Cold War  


Our primary goal is to investigate what it means to be human by looking at what humans were like in the past. To that end, this class is going to use several themes as "lenses" through which to examine the human past.  The themes are:

Ideology: What is ideology? What role does it play in human societies? Which systems of ideas are most beneficial to human societies? Which are most harmful?

Government: What are the origins of human governments?  What are the various forms that government has taken over the centuries? Which forms work best? Which are worst?

Gender: Are different social roles for men and women essential or arbitrary? How have human opinions on gender, marriage, and sexuality changed over time?

Social Class: Are inequalities in wealth and power an inherent part of human life or an evil to be overcome? On what basis should wealth and power be allocated?

There are of course plenty of other lenses through which to look at the past, but these are a good start and should give plenty of interesting questions to examine for one class.


There are no books you need to purchase for this class. We will be making use, as much as possible, of Open Educational Resources (OER) which are available online for free.

Even though we have left the more traditional paper textbook-oriented model of a history class behind, however, this course still requires you to do a great deal of reading, writing, and, above all, thinking.  You should take the course readings seriously, and make sure to keep up with the reading assignments described below in the Class Schedule.

Course readings should be completed BEFORE you come to the first class session of the week for which they are assigned, and you should have access to them in class, either by printing them out, or through an Internet-enabled device with a large screen (a smart phone probably won't cut it). It is especially important to read the documents listed as "Discussion Readings" as we will definitely be discussing those in class. Taking notes on them, marking the most important passages, and jotting down any questions you might have is highly encouraged.

Grading and Due Dates

Your overall grade for the class will consist of the following elements. Assignments which are not turned in will not receive any points. No work for the course will be accepted after December 10-- no exceptions!

Scores will be posted on Canvas, and will be accompanied by general comments about the strengths and weaknesses of your work.  If you would like a more detailed description of aspects of the assignment which could be improved, just ask me and I will be happy to provide one.

Course Element Points Due Date
Attendance and Participation 20% Every Class
Group Leadership
5% At least 2 times over the course of the semester
Book Review Paper 10% Source Proposal: October 1
Finished Paper: October 22
Conservatism and Socialism Paper 10% October 8
Midterm Exam 5% October 29
Annotated Bibliography, Part 1
10% November 12
Annotated Bibliography, Part 2
10% November 19
Final Project
25% Project Proposal: Sept. 24
Finished Project: December 3
Final Exam 5% December 10

Grading Scale

Your final grade for the course will be calculated according to the scale below. 

Final Course Grade
Above 90% A
80-89% B
70-79% C
60-69% D
59% and Below F


You will need access to the internet and to word processing software for this class.  You should be familiar with using Canvas (the College's learning management system) in order to submit assignments and view your grades, and you should regularly check your NOVA email account, which is the only way I have of getting in touch with you outside of class.

Guidelines for Conduct During Class Meetings

You are responsible for being present and attentive during class. Late arrival to class may result in being marked as absent for the class session.

Disruptive Behavior: Please be considerate of the other people involved in this class. Private conversations during lecture or class discussions all distract and disturb your professor and your classmates, and might therefore against your participation grade. If you have a question or a comment on the course material, please raise your hand.

Announcements: If there is something I need to communicate to the class, I will post an announcement to the course Canvas page. It is the your responsibility to check the course's Canvas page and your College email account in a timely manner in order to receive information on the substitute assignment and when it is due. You should adjust the settings of your Canvas account to make sure that you are promptly notified.

Abuse: Any student who seems to be under the influence of alcohol or intoxicating drugs, or who is abusive or violent will be referred to the appropriate College authorities.

Course Content Warning: Lectures and course materials may contain disturbing content, including, but not limited to: violence, sexual assault, war crimes, genocide, mental or physical illnesses or disabilities, discrimination or persecution on the basis of gender, race, ethnicity, religion, and/or sexual orientation, etc. If you have been personally impacted by one or more of these topics and suffer from PTSD, please email the professor if you would like prior notification of lectures containing discussions of the effecting topics. 

Accommodations: Students requiring special accommodations for assignments or exams should have the appropriate forms from the Disability Support Service (DSS).  Forms should be given to me no fewer than 7 days before the date the assignment or exam requiring the accommodation is due, and preferably at the very beginning of the semester.

Guidelines for Written Work

Formatting: Papers should be double spaced, using 12 point Tahoma font and one inch margins.  All papers must be word processed and submitted through Canvas as files in .doc, .odt, .pdf, or .rtf format (No .pages format submissions, please!).  E-mail submissions will not be accepted.  See this rubric for a more detailed description of how you will be graded.

Style and Grammar: All of your work for this class must present a main argument or thesis which addresses the question(s) posed by the assignment, should support that argument with evidence, and should be written in grammatical and stylistically correct English.  Make sure to proofread and use spell-check. For information on writing papers for this class, make sure to read my Tips for History Papers page.  You also might want to consult the following handy websites:

        NVCC Loudoun's Writing Center       
        Patrick Rael, "Avoid Common Mistakes In Your History Paper"
        Steven Kreis, "Writing the Short Essay"

CitationsYou MUST include a formal citation any time you refer to a specific passage in a text, even if you do not quote the text directly.  The required method for citing sources in this class is the Chigago Manual of Style's format, which is the standard for the discipline of history.  According to this format, at the end of any sentence or paragraph drawn from a specific part of a source, you insert superscript number which corresponds to a footnote at the bottom of the page with the appropriate bibliographic information.  Number your footnotes consecutively. Consult the previous web link for more detailed information on citations in this format.  You also might find these websites ( & and this video on "How To Use Chicago-Style Footnotes In A History Paper"  helpful. EVERY PAPER you complete for this class should include a bibliography at the end listing all of the sources you consulted (even if the list includes only one source).  Your bibliography page does not count toward the page length of your assignment. Papers without appropriate Chicago-format footnotes will receive a 20% penalty.

Plagiarism: Plagiarized work will not be accepted for this class. Any student caught plagiarizing or cheating in this course will be subject to appropriate disciplinary action, including at a minimum no credit whatsoever for the assignment or exam in question.  Procedures for disciplinary measures and appeals are outlined in the NOVA Student Handbook. Particularly flagrant instances of cheating or multiple instances of plagiarism may result in a grade of "F" for the course.

Please note that even copying a sentence or two from another source without citing it is enough to trigger a plagiarism penalty.  Likewise, changing a word here or there from content which you copy is still plagiarism.  Your work should be entirely in your own words except for the passages which you quote and appropriately cite.

For a bit more discussion on why you will probably get caught if you try to use the web to plagiarize, see "How Dumb Do They Think We Are?" by Jonathan Malesic.  All of your papers for the class will be checked for plagiarism by Turnitin software.

A.I. Writing Tools: Various tools which use artificial intelligence to generate text suggest intriguing possibilities for the future of writing. Right now, however, they are fairly crude, and do not do a good job of producing well-written papers which fulfill the specifications of course assignments. Moreover, part of what you are here to do is to get some practice in how to write and think for yourself. Therefore, assignments which make use of A.I. generated content will not be accepted, and trying to use A.I. writing tools to substitute for your own writing will likely be a waste of your time.

Late Work Major assignments (papers and exams) may be submitted for up to one week after the specified due date with a 10% late penalty. After one week, they will no longer be accepted (No exceptions!!!).

You cannot resubmit revised work for a higher score once it has been graded.

Guidelines for E-Mail Communication

The easiest way to contact me outside of class is through e-mail.  In order to receive a response to your message, however, your e-mail must contain the following elements:

Messages sent using "text-ese" or rude or abusive language will be ignored (b/c it makes u look ignorant d00d)!

I have on average between 150-200 students a semester, so you need to provide me with as much information as possible if you want a timely answer to your message.  Please allow at least 48 hours before following up.  If you haven't received a response within a couple of days, however, feel free to nag me.

Description of Course Elements

Attendance and Participation

Your attendance and active participation is expected at every class meeting.Given the fact that participation is part of your grade, your attendance is expected at every class meeting.  You are allowed two unexcused absence for the semester.  You will only receive credit for attending a class session if you are present when I take roll at the beginning of class.  Please note that you should definitely not come to class if you suspect you may have an infectious illness. Let me know and I can excuse the absence-- thanks!Preparedness: You should make sure that you have completed the assigned readings and any required assignments BEFORE you attend the class session for which they are assigned, especially the readings labelled as "Discussion Readings."  You may be asked to discuss both readings and assignments, so you should have access to them during class.

You are expected to treat your fellow students with respect and a spirit of generosity and good-will. If you have a problem with one of the other students that you are unable to resolve on your own, please contact the professor for guidance and assistance.

Group Leadership

Discussions in smaller groups will be a frequent feature of the class.  At least 2 times over the course of the semester, each student will serve as the leader of their group for class discussions. The group leader is responsible for noting which group members are present and participating in the discussion, and should help guide the group's conversation so that the form associated with that particular discussion has been completely filled out. The group leader will also share the group's findings with the rest of the class, if applicable, for that particular class session. Finally, the group leader should also turn in the appropriate completed form through Canvas at the end of the class session, and should submit a brief paragraph describing what they did to prepare and how they helped to facilitate the discussion.

Conservatism and Socialism Paper

Read the excerpts from Edmund Burke’s Reflections on the Revolution in France and Karl Marx’s The Communist Manifesto, and then write a paper at least two double-spaced pages long (approximately 500 words) which answers the following questions: How did the conservative Edmund Burke and the communist Karl Marx view the prospect of revolutions differently? Why did Burke think revolutions were so dangerous? Why did Marx think that revolutions were necessary and inevitable? How might each have critiqued the views of the other? What might they have agreed with one another about?

You should make sure to cite specific examples from the documents in order to support your arguments, and to cite them using Chicago-format footnotes, including page numbers.  Please follow the guidelines for written work in this class, and make sure to check the "Tips for History Papers" page before turning in your final draft.  See this rubric for a more detailed description of how you will be graded.

Book Review Paper

You should select a scholarly monograph (ie, a book written on a specialized topic by a recognized scholar) dealing with the topic you are using for your Final Project.  This book cannot be an encyclopedia, a sourcebook, a children's book, or a collection of essays or historical documents.  The book you have chosen must be approved by the professor before you can proceed any further with this assignment.

Once your scholarly monograph is approved, you should read it and then, in a paper at least two double-spaced pages long, write book review addressing the following main question:  "How useful would this book be to scholar researching this topic?"  Your analysis also ought to consider the following secondary questions:

Please note that you should definitely not comment on whether you found the book entertaining or boring.  I certainly hope you enjoyed the book, but whether you did or not is not actually relevant to a consideration of how useful the author's work might be to scholars and researchers.

The title of your paper should be the full bibliographic citation of the book you are reviewing (author, title, publisher, year, pages) in Chicago format. See the following links for more infomation on how to write a scholarly book review.

How to Write a History Book Review
Writing a Book Review

To find an appropriate scholarly mongraph, I would recommend that you consult the NOVA library's website.  You can easily order any book from any NOVA campus' library and have it delivered to the campus of your choice.  There are also quite a few books available as e-books as well.As a NOVA student you have borrowing privileges at GMU’s libraries. 
To check items out you must have a valid NOVACard and a copy of your registration for the current semester. For more information, visit the GMU Circulation webpage.  Visit the GMU Library website to search for titles. 

Please follow the guidelines for written work in this class, and make sure to check the "Tips for History Papers" page before turning in your final draft.  See this rubric for a more detailed description of how you will be graded.

Annotated Bibliography

An annotated bibliography is an organized list of sources. It differs from a straightforward bibliography in that each reference is followed by a paragraph length annotation. The Annotated Bibliography is part of your Final Project.  You should provide annotations for the sources that will then be used in the Final Project.  Sources should be directly related to the Final Project’s topic.  Annotations should be a brief paragraph (about 100 words) long.

Part 1 of your Annotated Bibliography should include:
See the description of the Final Project below for a list of sites to begin finding relevant primary sources.

For each of the Primary Sources in Part 1 your annotation should include:

Part 2 of your Annotated Bibliography should include:

For each of the Secondary Sources in Part 2 your annotation should include:

Please follow the guidelines for written work in this class.
Final Project

The capstone assignment for this class is the Final Project. For this assignment you should select one of the following option. No matter what option you choose, you will need to produce the equivalent of 6 double spaced pages worth of text (approximately 1250 words), and to draw upon at least 5 primary source documents (text, not images) and 5 scholarly secondary sources. See below for more detailed descriptions of what each option requires:


 In terms of evidence, you should feel free to draw from sources you have already considered for your other course work.  At a minimum, however, your paper must refer to and correctly cite:

For primary sources, you might consult the following resources (some of these sites also contain secondary sources as well):

Directory of World History Primary Sources

The relevant due dates and point worth of the various elements of the Final Project are as follows:

Final Project Element Description Due Date
Proposal You should submit a Final Project Proposal using the relevant link in Canvas which describes the option and topic. You may not turn in an Annotated Bibliography or a finished Final Project without getting your Topic Proposal approved in advance.
Sept. 24
Annotated Bibliography, Parts 1 and 2
You should submit a bibliography of the sources which you intend to use for your Final Project. The bibliography should include at least 5 primary sources (historical documents from the past) and 5 scholarly secondary sources (including at least one scholarly journal article and one scholar monarch). Each source should be accompanied by a brief paragraph of analysis (See the Annotated Bibliography assignment description for more detailed information).
Part 1: Nov. 11

Part 2: Nov. 18
Finished Final Project
You should submit a Final Project using the appropriate link on the course Canvas page. See below for complete descriptions of the various Final Project Options.
Dec. 2

Research Paper Option:

For this option you will write a Research Paper which is 6 double spaced pages (approximately 1250 words) long, and which draws upon and correctly cites at least 5 primary source documents (text, not images) and 5 scholarly secondary sources.Your paper should attempt to answer a specific question relevant to the subject matter of the course which deals with one or more of the themes of the course (ideology, government, gender, and social class) and discuss how it/they have changed over time. 

You should make sure to refer to or quote specific examples from the sources in order to support your arguments, and to cite them using Chicago-format footnotes.  Please follow the guidelines for written work in this class.  See this rubric for a more detailed description of how you will be graded.

The themes themselves are too broad to be the focus or your paper, so your topic should narrow the focus down in some way (For example, the topic, "Religion in Western Civilization" is too broad).  On the other hand, I would like you to pick a topic that allows you to examine changes over a considerable span of time. Here are some sample research questions as examples.  You are free to pick one of these, to modify one (for example to change the region on which the question focuses), or to suggest your own entirely new topic. 

“Day In The Life” Video Option:

For this version of the Final Project you will need to choose a time period and region relevant to some aspect of the subject matter of this class. Then select three different people to portray. They can be either specific individuals from history, or different types of people (ie, from different social classes, professions, nationalities, ethnicities, genders, etc.).

Once your characters have been approved, you should craft a video of approximately 5 minutes (so 15 minutes total), where each character introduces themselves and discusses what their daily life is like. Consider discussing topics such as the character’s work, living conditions, family relationships, food, political and social opinions, etc. The idea is to provide as vivid, interesting, and historically accurate portrayal as possible. Feel free to use appropriate accents or slang if you like. You can use friends or family members in your videos if you like, as long as you are the one who writes the script.

Important stuff that you shouldn’t forget:

Here are some suggestions for software to use when editing your videos:

Travel Log Website Option:

For this version of the Final Project you will need to choose a time period and region relevant to some aspect of the subject matter of this class. Then select at least five specific geographic sites or events to discuss. These can be specific buildings or monuments, neighborhoods, dwellings, shops, taverns, battles, revolutions, speeches, spectacles, festivals, ceremonies, etc.

Once your choice has been approved, you should craft a written narrative in which you visit each of the sites in turn, describing what you witness at stop along your journey. Make sure to mention what you see, hear, small, taste, do, etc. The idea is to provide as vivid, interesting, and historically accurate portrayal as possible. It is up to you whether you adopt the persona of a traveler from the time period in question, or travel back in time in some manner. You’ve got a lot of leeway here-- be creative!

Your finished product should be in the form of a website which is posted online, and which is viewable by anyone. The website should be a visually interesting as possible, and should include a variety of (correctly sourced and cited) images and/or maps.

Important stuff that you shouldn’t forget:

Here are some suggestions for free public web hosting for your website:


There are two unproctored exams for this course which are to be completed at home and submitted through Canvas. You can use any notes, course readers, or other resources you wish as long as you cite them (simply listing the bibliographic information or web address at the end of the question is sufficient-- no need to include footnotes). If you use any additional sources without citing them, you will not receive any points for the exam.

Midterm Exam. You should submit a file through Canvas with your responses to the following questions:

Part 1) Time Line (5 Paragraphs): Provide a Time Line which lists in chronological order what you think are the five most important events in the history of the West from 1600-1900. ALL OF YOUR EXAMPLES MUST BE EVENTS OR DEVELOPMENTS WE DISCUSSED IN CLASS!  No more than two of your examples should be drawn from United States history. Each item on your Time Line should be a paragraph long and should contain the following information:

Part 2) Primary Source Analyses: You will be given the titles of two primary sources which you have read during the first half of the semester, and asked to briefly discuss the following elements:

Final Exam. You should submit a file through Canvas with your responses to the following questions:

Part 1) Time Line: Provide a Time Line which lists in chronological order what you think are the five most important events in the history of the West after 1900. ALL OF YOUR EXAMPLES MUST BE EVENTS OR DEVELOPMENTS WE DISCUSSED IN CLASS! No more than two of your examples should be drawn from United States history. Each item on your Time Line should be a paragraph long and should contain the following information:
  • What happened.
  • When it happened (approximate dates are okay).
  • Why it happened. 
  • The major Consequences of the event.
  • How is this event significant or important?

Part 2) Primary Source Analyses: You will be given the titles of two primary sources which you have read during the second half of the semester, and asked to briefly discuss the following elements:

  • The identity and point of view of the author.
  • The historical context of the document (what circumstances influenced the author?).
  • The basic contents of the document.
  • What does the document tell us about the specific time and place it was written?

Course Schedule

Week 1.

Tuesday, September 5: Introduction
Read the syllabus.

Watch "Is History B.S.?"
Thursday, September 7: Encounters With The West
Discussion Reading: Lahontan, Excerpts from Dialogues with Kondiaronk (1703)

Watch Is Western Civilization B.S.?

Watch What's The Difference Between Primary & Secondary Sources?

Brooks, "Introduction"
Assignments to Complete: Read through the entire syllabus, and submit the Introduction Assignment by September 10 using the appropriate link under "Assignments" in the class Canvas page.

Week 2. 

Tuesday, September 12:

The Old Regime Meets The New Economy

Discussion Reading: Gerrard Winstanley, Excerpts from "The True Levellers Standard Advanced (1649)"

Watch Was The Atlantic Slave Trade B.S.?

Brooks, Chapter 8: Absolutism; Chapter 9: Trade Empires
Thursday, September 14:

The Enlightenment
Discussion Readings: Mary Wollstonecraft, excerpts from "A Vindication of the Rights of Women" (1792)

Watch Was The Enlightenment B.S.?

Brooks, Chapter 11: The Enlightenment

Assignments to Complete:

Week 3.

Tuesday, September 19:

An Age of Revolutions

Discussion Readings: French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (1789); The Haitian Declaration of Independence, (1804)

Watch Was The Haitian Revolution B.S.?

Brooks, Chapter 12: The Society of Orders
Thursday, September 21:

Terror and Reaction

Discussion Reading: Edmund Burke, Excerpts from Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790).

Was The French Revolution B.S.?

Chapter 13: The French Revolution

Brooks, Volume 3, Chapter 1: Napoleon
Assignments to Complete: Final Project Proposal Due September 24

Last day to withdraw with refund is September 19.
Week 4.

Tuesday, September 26:

The Industrial Revolution
Discussion Reading: "The Life of the Industrial Worker in Nineteenth-Century England" (1832); Women Miners in the English Coal Pits (1842).
Watch Was The Industrial Revolution B.S.?

Brooks, Chapter 2: The Industrial Revolution

Thursday, September 28:

 Industrial Era Politics

Discussion Reading: J.S. Mill, excerpts from On Liberty (1859);

Brooks, Chapter 3: Political Ideologies and Movements

Assignments to Complete: Source Proposal for Book Review Paper due October 1.

Week 5.

Tuesday, October 3:

Maps of Utopia

Discussion Reading: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, excerpts from The Communist Manifesto  (1848)
Thursday, October 5:

Maps of Utopia II

Discussion Reading: Errico Malatesta, "Towards Anarchism" (1899)
Assignments to Complete Conservatism and Socialism Paper due October 8
Week 6.

Tuesday, October 10
No Class
Thursday, October 12:

Discussion Readings: Documents of the Paris Commune, 1870-1871- "The Fatherland Is In Danger!," "Manifesto of the Paris Commune," "The Pantheon's About To Blow Up!"

Brooks, Chapter 4: The Politics of the Nineteenth Century
Assignments to Complete:

Week 7.
Tuesday, October 17:

Cultural Modernism

Discussion Readings: Selection of Love Letters from Oscar Wilde to Alfred "Bosie" Douglas (1892-1897); Oscar Wilde, Selected Prison Writings (1897); Douglas O. Linder, "The Trials of Oscar Wilde: An Account (secondary source)"

Brooks, Chapter 5: Culture, Science, and Pseudo-Science

Thursday, October 19:

The Realities of Empire

Discussion Reading: Ruyard Kipling, "The White Man's Burden" (1899); Excerpts from The Casement Report on the Congo (1904)

Was The English East India Co. B.S.?

Was Imperialism In Congo B.S.?

Brooks, Chapter 6: Imperialism
Assignments to Complete: Book Review Paper  due October 22

Week 8.
Tuesday, October 24:

The Great War
Discussion Reading: Ernst Jünger, Excerpts from Storm of Steel (1920)

Watch Were The Causes of World War I B.S.?

Brooks, Chapter 7: World War 1

Thursday, October 26:

A Flawed Peace
Discussion Reading: Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points (1918)

Brooks, Chapter 8: Early Twentieth-Century Culture

Watch Was the 1918 Influenza B.S.?
Assignments to Complete: Midterm Exam due October 29

Week 9.
Tuesday, October 31:

Revolution in Russia
Discussion Reading: Excerpts from the works of V.I. Lenin, (1902, 1917)
Watch Was The Russian Revolution B.S.?

Thursday, November 2:

Stalin's Terror

Discussion Reading: Rosa Luxemburg, "Democracy and Dictatorship" from The Russian Revolution (1918);

Last day to withdraw with a grade penalty is November 3

Week 10.

Tuesday, November 7: No Class- Go vote!

Thursday, November 9:

Interwar Culture & Fascism
Discussion Reading: Gabriele Tergit, "Paragraph 218: A Modern Gretchen Tragedy" (1926)

Brooks, Chapter 9: Fascism

Watch Is Fascism B.S.?

Assignments to Complete: Annotated Bibliography, Part 1 due November 12

Week 11.
Tuesday, November 15:

The Third Reich
Discussion Reading: Adolf Hitler, Excerpts from Several Speeches.

Watch Is Modern Anti-Semitism B.S.?

Thursday, November 17:

Total War
Discussion Reading: Elina I. Kochina, "Blockade Diary" (1941) 

Brooks, Chapter 10: World War 2 
Assignments to Complete: Annotated Bibliography, Part 2 due November 19

Week 12.
Tuesday, November 21:

Discussion Reading: Elie Wiesel, Excerpts from Night (1960)

Watch Is Violence B.S.?

Brooks, Chapter 11: The Holocaust
Thursday, November 23:  No Class

Week 13.
Tuesday, November 28:

The Cold War World
Discussion Reading: Winston Churchill, "Iron Curtain" Speech (1946); Josef Stalin's Response to Churchill (1946)

Was The Cold War B.S.?

Chapter 12: The Soviet Union
Thursday, November 30:


Discussion Reading: Patrice Lumumba, "Speech at Accra" (1958)

Watch Was The CIA Coup In Guatemala B.S.?

Brooks, Chapter 13: Postwar Conflict
Assignments to Complete: Final Project Due December 3

Week 14.

Tuesday, December 5: Post-War Life and the Neo-Liberal Order
Discussion Reading: Simone de Beauvoir, excerpts from The Second Sex (1949)

Was The End of the Cold War B.S.?and Is Globalization B.S.?

, Chapter 14: Postwar Societyand Chapter 15: Towards the Present
Assignments to Complete: Final Exam due December 10

Various NOVA Policies and Resources:


Students are responsible for knowing and following the policies in the Student Handbook. The following are highlights of information that students should be aware of as they begin a course.

Academic Integrity Policy

Accommodations and Accessibility Services

Buy Books with Excess Financial Aid

Career Services

Closing Information


Course Drop/Withdrawal Policy

COVID-19 Updates

Financial Stability and Advocacy Centers

FREE Tutoring

Office of Wellness and Mental Health

Prerequisite Verification Statement

Remote Student Support Services


Academic Integrity Policy

NOVA promotes and emphasizes the importance of honesty in academic work. It is therefore imperative for students to maintain the highest standard of honor in their scholastic work.

Academic dishonesty, as outlined in more detail in the Academic Integrity Policy (Policy Number: 224), can include, but is not limited to cheating on an exam or quiz, submitting work that is not your own (plagiarism), or sharing assessments online. Consequences of academic dishonesty can include a failing grade on an assignment, a failing grade in the course, and may include additional administrative sanctions such as suspension or expulsion from the college. Procedures for disciplinary measures and appeals are outlined in the Academic Integrity Procedures. It is a student’s responsibility to become familiar with the student code of conduct. Lack of awareness is no excuse for noncompliance with NOVA’s policies and procedures.

NOVA Faculty may choose to use tools such as Turnitin to detect and flag instances of plagiarism in academic writing. These tools can also identify text written by artificial

intelligence (AI) applications such as ChatGPT and flag it as potential plagiarism.


The use of AI to complete assigned work may be considered a violation of the academic integrity policy. Students are urged to be cautious when using any web tools designed to assist with assignments without their instructors’ explicit permission to do so and to cite their sources in all their work.

Accommodations and Accessibility Services

NOVA is committed to ensuring all students have an opportunity to pursue a college education regardless of the presence or absence of a disability. No academically qualified student with a disability will be denied access to or participation in the services, programs, and activities of the College. Your access to and inclusion in this course is important to NOVA and me. Please request your accommodation letter (Memorandum of Accommodations) early in the semester or as soon as you become registered so that we have adequate time to arrange your approved academic accommodations. Returning students must renew their Memorandum of Accommodations (MOA) every semester; these students should submit the request 24 hours or later after enrolling in at least one class. Allow up to 7 business days for the request to be approved.

Accommodations are provided for in-person, online, and remote/synchronous (Zoom) learning. To get started, review NOVA’s Accommodation and Accessibility Services website. Following a meeting with a counselor, you will be issued a Memorandum of Accommodation (MOA). You must provide your MOA to your professors, testing proctor, and/or tutoring center in order to receive your accommodations. You may provide your MOA any time during the semester; however, accommodations are not retroactive. You may email your MOA or provide me with a printed copy. I will send you an email to acknowledge receipt. If I have any questions or if there is anything about your accommodations you wish to explain, we will schedule a meeting outside of class for that purpose. Please remind me of any special arrangements that must be made in advance of tests and assessments. If you need a sign language interpreter, or if you need live captions for your Zoom class, send an email to

Buy Books with Excess Financial Aid

If your anticipated financial aid is more than what you owe for the semester, you may use your excess aid to purchase books, supplies, or even a laptop through the NOVA Bookstore. Book purchases must occur during the provided disbursement dates every semester. Note that this excess financial aid can only be used to purchase course books (physical and digital) and supplies at the NOVA Bookstore, not from other vendors. Two disbursement periods are available during the fall and spring semesters. Any holds on a student's account regarding a debt to the College must be resolved prior to using financial aid at the bookstore.

Career Services

The College is committed to providing career services to all students as part of the comprehensive educational journey. Career Services assists students with exploring, developing and setting goals related to each student’s unique educational and academic needs. These services include career assessments, occupational information, goal setting, planning and employment resources. You can request an appointment with a career counselor.

Closing Information

NOVA announces campus and college closings on the NOVA homepage. You can also receive notification by cell phone or email if you register for NOVA Alert. Also review NOVA’s guidance on emergency closings, delayed openings, and continuation of instruction.

If a course is canceled due to a weather event or other unforeseen situation, check the course Canvas site or NOVA email as soon as possible for instructions and assignments to avoid falling behind in coursework. You are expected to be up to date with all assignments the next time the class meets.


Northern Virginia Community College (NVCC) faculty, staff, and administrators communicate with students through their official NVCC email accounts ( Students are likewise required to use their VCCS email accounts ( to communicate with instructors and other college personnel. Students should check their email accounts regularly.

Course Drop/Withdrawal Policy

Please note these important deadlines related to your enrollment in a course:

To identify these important dates for your courses, please visit the College Academic Calendar and scroll down to the specific session for your course. Please note that any drops or withdrawals from a course may impact financial aid, International Student status, or military benefits. Students with questions should check with the appropriate offices.

COVID-19 Updates

COVID-19 information and updates can be found on the Stay Safe with Ace webpage.

Financial Stability and Advocacy Centers

The Financial Stability and Advocacy Centers provide assistance to students who are experiencing financial hardships that might prevent the students’ academic success. The personnel at the Financial Stability and Advocacy Centers work with students to identify college or community services available. For more information, please visit the Financial Stability and Advocacy Centers webpage, or contact the office by calling 703.323.3450 or emailing

FREE Tutoring

NOVA’s Tutoring Centers offer free in-person and virtual tutoring to all NOVA Nighthawks. Students can drop by any one of campus Tutoring Centers for walk-in services, or set up an appointment for tutoring. To request an appointment for one-on-one tutoring, either in-person or via Zoom, log in to myNOVA to select EAB Navigate. For more information and for Tutoring Center locations, visit In addition, is an online tutoring service that Northern Virginia Community College offers that is free to all students. provides tutoring in a variety of subjects, many of which are available 24/7. To access, click on the 24/7 Online Tutoring link located in your course on the navigation menu.

Office of Wellness and Mental Health

During your time at NOVA, you may experience challenges including struggles with academics, finances, or your personal well-being. NOVA has support resources available. Please contact the Office of Wellness and Mental Health if you are seeking resources and support, or if you are worried about a friend or classmate.

Prerequisite Verification Statement

As noted in the Course Prerequisites Policy, some courses have prerequisite or corequisite requirements that are established to foster a student’s success in the course. Students may not enroll in a course for which they do not meet the prerequisites by the time the course begins or for which they do not simultaneously enroll in any corequisite. Students may be administratively dropped from any course for which they have not met the prerequisite. If a course has a prerequisite, it is the responsibility of the student to ensure completion of this pre-requisite course first. Any student needing assistance in determining prerequisite or corequisite requirements can reach out to their faculty member or Campus Academic Division office for support.

Remote Student Support Services

If you need academic assistance or need college services but cannot make it to campus, please review NOVA’s Remote Student Support Services to receive virtual assistance. Services provided include enrollment services, advising, tutoring, and financial aid assistance.


Title IX is a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in educational programs, activities, admission, and employment. Complaints of sex-based discrimination, sexual violence, domestic violence, dating violence, and sexual or gender-based harassment are governed by the Title IX Policy. For more information or to make a report, visit the Office of Title IX.